skeleton II – 2/22 quiz LAB

Question Answer
vertebral column contains 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral (fused), 2 coccygeal vertebra
spinous (dorsal) process wedge-shaped structure that extends posteriorly from the vertebra. Can be felt as a bump when running fingers down spinal column
lamina bony plates, which fuse together
spina bifida failure of lamina to fuse, which spinal cord exposed and can lead to spinal cord damage
transverse processes extend laterally from either side of vertebra. Serve as muscle attachments, and rib attachments in thoracic region.
body Most anterior portion. solid round or oval structure lies on the anterior aspect of vertebra
intervertebral discs flat, cartilaginous discs placed between the vertebral bodies to cushion and reduce injury. Central portion is filled with paste-like material.
pedicles attach to transverse processes to the body of the vertebra
vertebral foramen central hole in vertebra
vertebral canal spinal cord tunnels through the foramen spaces
superior & inferior articular processes inferior articular process on one vertebra forms a joint (articulation) with superior articular process of the next vertebra in line
cervical vertebra contains (4) transverse foramen, atlas, axis, dens (odontoid process)
cervical transverse foramen 2 tunnels for important blood vessels to the brain
atlas fist of the cervical vertebra lacks body. Very flat & forms articulation with occipital condyles, allowing the head to move up and down (Yes)
dens (odontoid process) modified body. part of second cervical vertebra that extends into the atlas, creating a pivot joint that allows the head to rotate side to side (no)
axis second cervical vertebra with a modified body called the dens (odontoid process), that extends into the atlas, creating a pivot joint that allows the head to rotate side to side (no)
thoracic vertebra has an additional set of articular surfaces, rib facets, located at the transverse processes
rib facets located on transverse processes of thoracic vertebra. Form a joint with posterior portion of the ribs.
lumbar vertebra largest vertebra of spinal column. Big, have a single hole, lack rib facets
sacral vertebra five sacral vertebra fuse together during development to form a single, solid unit, the sacrum, forming the posterior wall of the pelvis
sacrum solid unit forms the posterior wall of pelvis.
coccygeal vertebra 2 additional vertebra at the end of spinal column. Typically fused together, called the tailbone
thorax composed of ribs and sternum
sternum aka breastbone, lies medially in anterior thorax.
sternum body main portion of sternum, serves as attachment for ribs at the front of the thorax.
manubrium superior to sternum body. a triangular bone segment to which claviclesand first pair of ribs attach.
xiphoid process cartilaginous part of the inferior end of the sternum
ribs 24 thin , curved bones, arranged in pairs, that attach to the vertebra posteriorly and the sternum anteriorly.
costal cartilages serve as connectors between ribs and sternum. More flexible and allow thorax to exapnd and contract for breathing.
true ribs first 7 pairs of ribs have individual costal cartilages that attach the rib to the sternum
false ribs remaining 5 pairs of ribs with a more indirect connection to sternum. First 3 pairs use shared costal cartilages, while final two floating ribs have no connection
floating ribs final 2 flase ribs have no connection to the sternum at all.
appendicular skeleton upper appendages of the skeleton including shoulder girdle and arms.
scapula (4) large, flat, triangular bone located on the back of shoulder area on each side of body. Articulates with several bones in shoulder region. Has glenoid fossa, scapular spine, acromion process, caracoid process
glenoid fossa oval depression on lateral side of scapula. Forms the "socket" part of the ball-and-socket joint of shoulder and articulates with humerus of upper arm
scapular spine cutting diagonally across posterior scapula. Can be felt as a ridge on the superior, posterior shoulder region
acromion process large, lateral extension of the scapular spine. Articulates with clavicle. Can be felt as a firm bump superior to the shoulder joint
coracoid process smaller projection which lies just inferior to acromion process on the scapula. Serves as attachment point for certain muscles of the shoulder
clavicle aka collar bone. Articulates with both acromion process(scapua) and manubrium (sternum). Felt as firm ridge across anterior shoulder
humerus (7) upper arm bone. articulates with scapula & radius and ulna. Head, greater tubercle, capitulum (condyle), trochlea (condyle), medial & lateral epicondyle,olecranon fossa, coronoid fossa
head of humerous large, rounded knob at superior end. "ball" of ball-and-socket shoulder joint and articulates with glenoid fossa (scapula)
greater tubercle lateral to head of humerus. Large bump, important muscle attachment site, can be felt just inferiorly and slightly lateral to acromion process
capitulum distal, lateral, rounded condyle, that articulates with radius.
trochlea distal, medial side of humerus. Articulates with ulna. Shaped like pulley or spool and extends more distally than capitulum
medial & lateral epicondyle just proximal to condyles large bumps can be felt on either side of humerus. Medial (more pronounced) is near trochlea, lateral near capitulum.
olecranon fossa small depression posterior aspect of distal humerus. Makes space for proximal portion of ulna during elbow movement
coronoid fossa smaller depression anterior aspect of distal humerus, creating space for another portion of ulna during movement.
ulna(4) medial bone of lower arm, extending from elbow to little finger side of the hand. trochlear (semilunar) notch, olecranon process, coronoid process, styloid process of the ulna
trochlear (semilunar) notch forms hinged-type joint with trochlea of humerus, allowing lower arm to move up and down. Trochlea fits neatly into this crecent shaped structure.
olecranon process aka elbow. large bump posterior to trochlear notch
coronoid process smaller projection at distal end of trochlear notch
styloid process of ulna pointed projection at most distal end of ulna. felt as a bump on the posterior, medial wrist
radius (3) lateral bone of lower arm, extending from elbow to thumb side. head, radial tuberosity, styloid process of radius
head of radius forms pivot joint with capitulum of humerus, allowing hand turn over to the other side
radial tuberosity small bump inferior to head of radius. serves as important muscle attachment
styloid process of radius pointed projection at distal end of radius. felt as bump on lateral side of wrist
carpal bones wrist: 8 bones held together with strong, broad ligaments that wrap around the wrist. slide across each other during movement.
metacarpal bones hand: 5 bones
phalanges Fingers: attached to each metacarpal bones. knuckles represent articulations between phalanges. Each finger has 3, thumb has 2
transverse foramen atlas, axis (dens), cervical
rib facet thoracic

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