Mrs Eastham

Question Answer
contractility ability to shorten w/ force
excitability ability to respond to stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil after being stretched
epimysium connective tissue sheath that surrounds skeletal muscle
fascia connective tissue that is outside the epimysium that separates muscles
what do muscles do that are essential to the body's maintenance? produce heat
fasciculi numerous visible bundles of muscle
perimysium loose connective tissue that surrounds the fasciculi
what are fasciculi composed of? single muscle cells called muscle fibers
epomysium surrounds each muscle fiber
myofibrils threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments(looks like pearls twisted together)
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments(looks like mini golf clubs)
sarcomeres join end to end to form myofibril
what is on each side of the Z line? I bands: which consists of actin
what does the H zone consist of? myosin ONLY
What is the charge difference between membranes called? resting membrane potential
what is action potential? the reverse act to stimulus
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potential to skeletal muscle fibers
neuromusclular junction axons that branch into the muscle and connect
motor unit single motor neuron and all skeletal muscle innervates
what is the name of the two muscles on the arm bicep and tricep
what is the major muscle in your leg calve muscle
actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another muscle contraction
sliding filament mechanism sliding of actin and myosin
H and I bands shorten but which one doesnt A band
muscle twitch a contraction
threshold muscle fiber stimulus
all or none response maximum contraction
lag phase time between stimulus and contraction
contraction phase time of the contraction
relaxation phase time when muscle relaxes
tetany where muscles stay contracted
recruitment the increase in number of motor units
atp adenosine triphosphate
atp is produced where mitochondria
atp is what? short-lived and unstable
creatine phosphate storeable energy
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
muscle fatigue results when atp is used faster than it can be reproduced in contraction
isometric contraction the amount of tension increases
isotonic conrtaction the tension is constant but the length of the muscle changes during contraction
muscle tone constant tension produced by muscles
fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow-twitch contract slowly and don't fatigue
origin stationary end of muscle
insertion the end of the muscle undergoing the most movement

chapter 6 – anatomy

Question Answer
contractility ability to shorten w/ force
excitability ability to respond to stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil after being stretched
epimysium connective tissue sheath that surrounds skeletal muscle
fascia connective tissue that is outside the epimysium that separates muscles
what do muscles do that are essential to the body's maintenance? produce heat
fasciculi numerous visible bundles of muscle
perimysium loose connective tissue that surrounds the fasciculi
what are fasciculi composed of? single muscle cells called muscle fibers
endomysium surrounds each muscle fiber
myofibrils threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments(looks like pearls twisted together)
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments(looks like mini golf clubs)
sarcomeres join end to end to form myofibril
what is on each side of the Z line? I bands: which consists of actin
what does the H zone consist of? myosin ONLY
What is the charge difference between membranes called? resting membrane potential
what is action potential? the brief reversal back of the charge of stimulus
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potential to skeletal muscle fibers
neuromusclular junction axons that branch into the muscle and connect
motor unit single motor neuron and all skeletal muscle innervates
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft space between the presynaptic terminal and muscle cell
postsynaptic terminal muscle fiber
synaptic vesicles they secrete neurotransmitters
acetylcholine neurotransmitters
what is creatine phosphate? a high energy molecule
what does anaerobic respiration mean? w/o oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
what is oxygen debt? amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
what is muscle fatigue? results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced
what does isometric mean? length of the muscle stays the same nut tension increases
what does isotonic mean? muscle length changes but tension stays same
muscle tone constant tension produced by muscles for long periods of time
fast twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
origin of the muscle most stationary end of muscle
insertion part of muscle undergoing most movement
belly of muscle inbetween origin and insertion
can muscles have more then one origin? yes
what are synergists? muscles that work together
what are antagonists? muscles that work against each other
what is a prime mover? a muscle in a group of synergists that does the most moving
what does the occipitofrontalis do? moves eyebrows
orbicularis oris? moves mouth
orbicularis oculi? closes eyes
buccinator? flattens cheeks
zygomaticus? smile
levator labii superioris? snarling
depressor anguli oris? frowning
two types of chewing muscles masseter and temporalis
what are intrinsic muscles? changes the shape of the tongue
what are extrinsic muscles? moves tongue
prime neck mover? sternocleidomastoid
what is torticollis? wry neck

Final test in micro

Question Answer
What is urine normally? Sterile
What is the primary bacteria in the vagina Lactobacillus spp.
Lactobacillus spp. can produce lactic acid
What can lactobacillus spp. maintain? pH
lactobacillus inhibits most ______? microbes
Lactobacillus produces ____ which also inhibits _____. H202, growth
Estrogen promotes growth of? lactobacillus spp.
Candid albicans is found in what %? 10-25%
Pregnant and menopausal women =? high rate UTI.
Why do pregant women have a high rate of uti? because a decrease in estrogen
The male urethra is usually sterile, except microbes near external opening.
What is UTI usually triggered by? inflammation of urethra
What is a serious complication of UTI? The UTI can move to the kidneys
How many UTI are in the USA per year? 7 million and many are nosocomail.
what are many of the UTI due to? the proximity to the anus
this bacteria is prominent what am I? intestinal bacteria
what is the most common bacteria that will cause UTI. e.coli, & Psuedomonas spp.
what is cystitis? inflammation of urinary bladder
what is sign and symptom of cystitis? difficult, painful urination
you may have pyuria with this ______ and what is pyuria? Cystitis, pus in the urine
what is the main bug that causes cystitis? E.coli
What is the other main bug that can cause Cystitis? Staphylococcus saprophyticus
What is pyelonephritis? inflammation of one or both kidneys
what is pyelonephritis usually caused from? untreated cystitis
What is the main symptom for pyelonephritis pain in the back or flank pain
Pyelonephritis is usually a complication of the _______ UTI. ____% is _____, and can result in______. lower, 75, e.coli, bacteremia
If pyelonephritis is chronic it can cause formation of ________ and severe impairing function of the __________ scar tissue, kidneys
this is the most common notifiable disease in the US? Gonorrhea
what is the bug for gonorrhea? Nesseria gonorroeae
what is the percent and age group that is gets Gonorrhea? 60% and 15-24 years of age
Neisseria gonorroheae is a gram ____ _____. gram negative diplococci
Neisseria gonorroheae attaches the the epithelial cells by? fimbrie
Neisseria gonorroheae invades spaces between? columnar epi cells
Gonorrhea can also be found in? oral pharyngeal area, eyes, rectum, urethra, opening of cervix.
Gonorrhea can lead to_____ and _____ formation infalmmation and pus
Infection rate from single exposure in men for gonorrhea is? 20-35%
infection rate from single exposure in women for gonorrhea is? 60-90%
Gonorrhea symptoms differ in men and women in men what is the symptoms? painful urination, pus formation, 80% show symptoms after just a few days, and common comlication is urethritis.
what is the symptoms of Gonorrhea in women? more insidious, only in cervix which makes few aware of infection.
what happens later in the disease of gonorrhea in women if left undiagnosed? abdominal pain and Pelvic inflammatory disease
If gonorrhea is untreated it can? disseminate adn become septic
what is it called when gonorrhea is found in infant eyes during birht? opthalmia neonatorum
Gonorrhea is transmitted at any point of ___ ____ and has no _______. sexual contact, adaptive immunity
How do you diagnosis gonorrhea in men Gram (-) diplococci (GNDC) in pus from urethra. diplococci within the wbc, and culture on the Thayer martin media which increases in CO2 is needed
infants recieve this after birth silver nitrate
what is NGU? Nongonococcal Urethritis (CLAP)
Nongonococcal urethritis is caused by? Chlamydia trachomatis
this is 5x more prevalent in women. Nongonococcal urethritis
in women Nongonococcal urethritis may cause? (PID) pelvic inflammotory disease
nongonococcal urethritis may infect infants during birth by causing? eye infection or pneumonia
70% of men and 50% of women may be asymptomatic with this diseases what am I? Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)
symptoms of NGU include painful urination, and watery discharge
how do you diagnose NGU? amplified probe (CTNG probe) can use urine but swabs work best.
what does CTNG stand for? Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorroheae
What does PID stand for? Pelvic inflammatory disease
what is PID? extensive bacterial infection in female pelvic organs.
these three can cause PID what are they? gonorrhea, chlamydia & trichanella
PID may cause salpingitis what is salpingitis? infalmmation of fallopian tubes
Salpingitis may cause scarring and leads to sterility
if the uterine tube is blocked due to PID could cause ectopic pregnancy
how do you diagnosis PID? Signs and Symptoms and Culture
what is Syphilis caused by? Treponema pallidium
Treponema pallidium is very ____ & tightly _____. it is also difficult to _____. thin, coiled, stain
treponema pallidium produces several lipoproteins
syphilis induces ______ response and leads to _____ distruction. inflammatory, tissue
In syphilis the treponema pallidium immediately enters the blood stream
Syphilis can invade deep tissue
infection with syphilis can result in significant immunity
syphilis is transmitted by sexual contact
in the primary stage of syphilis a small hard chancre at infection site comes about when does this happen. 10-90 days after exposure
Painless exudate of serum at center, lesion disappears, and bacteria enters bloodstream and lymph system what stage of syphilis am I? Primary stage of syphilis
this rash is especially seen on plams and soles what bug is this associated with Syphilis
several wekks after primary, symptoms tend to resolve in 3 weeks, and skini rash may appear what stage of syphilis am I secondary stage
in this stage of syphilis you have loss of patches of hair, and may have neurological symptoms and is considered a mild stage what stage am I. Secondary stage
in this stage od syphilis you have no symptoms, and after 2-4 years your not infective and majority of cases don't progress beyond latency . latent period
you may still pass this disease in child bith from mother to child syphilis in the latent period
in this stage of syphilis you may enter latent stage w/o treatment, and 25% untreated cases lead to this. tertiary stage
you may have a cell mediated immune response due to surviving spirochetes with this stage of syphilis Tertiary stage
tertiary stage classified on? infected tissue and lesion type
gummatous syphillis gummas, progressive inflammation rubbery masses of tissue in multiple organs
this is seen after 15 years and causes localized tissue destruction gummatous syphilis
cardiovascular syphilis weaking of aorta, and now rare with antibiotics
neurosyphilis infects CNS, widely varies S/S
this degree of syphilis is rare to available treatment what degree am I? 3rd degree
Congenital syphilis most distressing and dangerous
transmitted across the placenta congenital syphilis
damages mental development and leads to neurological symptoms congenital syphilis
this is most common if mother is in latent stage congenital syphilis
treatment of mother during first 2 trimesters usually prevents this disease congenital syphilis
diagnosis of syphilis complex and different requirements depending on stage.
microscopic, nontreponemal serological tests and treponemal serological tests are all tests that can be done for syphilis
in the first stage of syphilis you would use this test microscopic because spirochetes can be seen in exudates, use dark field microscopy and may use DFA stains
this is how you would diagnosis syphilis in its 2nd stage nontreponomal serological test,
these test detects 99% of 2nd degree cases of syphilis nontreponomal serological tests
what are some examples of serological tests that can be done for stage 2 of syphilis VDRL, modified RPR, and elisa
what tests can be done in the 3rd degree stage of syphilis treponemal serological tests
treponemal serological tests are specific and enzyme immunoassay, rapid tests treponemal serological tests
FTA-ABS fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test and not used for screening.
bacterial vaginosis inflammation of vagina
most often this bug causes bacterial vaginosis Gardnerella vaginalis
Gardnerella vaginalis is a small ______ gram () rod. pleomorphic (v)
characteristics of bacterial vaginosis are vaginal pH > 4.5, copious, frothy discharge, fishy odor with addition of potassium hydroxide (KOH)
Bacterial Vaginosis ecology is not well known but is believed that something decreases amount of lactobacillus, and allows for g. vaginalis to proliferate
this can be found in the maile urethra but now known to cause disease Gardnerella vaginalis
how would you diagnose bacterial vaginosis vagina pH, fishy odor, clue cells, & Genital affirm
tell me 2 things about clue cells slothed vaginal cells covered in biofilm, and see many gram (v) rods
Bacterial vaginosis is more of nuisance than infection but can be factos in these two things. premature birth, and low birth weight
Genital herpes is known as the herpes Simplex virus 2
1 in ___ over ____ are infected 4 over 30
gental lesion appears, vesicles appear, painful urination, walking and clothing uncomfortable and vescles form a head what am I symptoms of? Genital herpes
this can be infectious without symptoms or lesion, and semen may contain this, which make condoms of little use Genital herpes, virus
this ____ is distressing due to re-occurance virus
herpes virus enter _____ long latent stage life
you may have several re-occurances per year, and re-occurances are seen more in men then women, aprox 90% have re-occurance Herpes Simplex virus 2
you would use these tools to diagnosis genital herpes culture of virus from vesicle, PCR, and if no lesion- serological tests
is there any treatment for Genital herpes yes there is treatment but no cure
what is the goal with genital herpes goal is to supress, antiviral drugs such as acyclovir, and famciclovir are given
~1500 cases per year Neonatal herpes
neonatal herpes can cross the placental barrier and these could result from this spontaneous abortion, serious fetal damage such as mental retardation, and defective hearing and vision
fetal consequences most severe if first infectionis during pregnancy neonatal herpes
fetus is infected if virus is grown from the amniotic fluid neonatal herpes
If virus free the baby needs protection during passage through the birthing canal and may require a? ceasarean section
Gental warts human papillomavirus
some warts are extremely _____ & _____. large and warty
some warts are ____ & _____ smooth and flat
viable warts are caused by serotype 6 & 11
serotype ____ & _____ causes cancer 16 & 18
treatment of genital warts applied gels podofilox, and imiquimod
can genital warts be cured no
what is the percentage that is clear within 2 years with genital warts 90%
the vaccine for human papillomavirus is effective against which serotypes? 6,11,16 & 18
Candidiasis yeast infection
common cause of Candidiasis is Candida albicans
there is a more resistant form what is it candida glabrata
where can candidiasis grow mucous membrane of mouth, intestinal tract and GU tract
Candidiasis is usually opportunistic lesion similiar to thrush
Candidiasis can be irritating by causing these severe itching, yellow cheesy discharge, and yeasty or no odor
what are some predisposing conditions for Candidiasis oral contraceptives and pregancy, hormones, uncontrolled diabetes and use of broad spectrum ABT
How can you diagnose Candidiasis microscopic ID with vaginal scrapings, culture, and genital affirm
what is the treatment of Candidiasis topicasl application of nonperscription antifungals, i.e. clotrimazole, and miconazole or a single dose of oral antifungal Fluconazole
Trichmoniasis protozoan infection
trichmoniasis is caused by tricomonas vaginalis
frequant normal inhavitant is vagina of women and urethra of men
Trichmoniasis is considered a? STI
Trichmoniasis is often seen with co-infection of Gonnorehea
trichmoniasis is an accumulation of? leukocytes at infection site
The infection of leukocytes can result in profuse discharge, greenish yellow, foul odor,
in this dieses symptoms are rare in men trichmoniasis
1/2 of people that are infected with trichmoniasis are? asymptommatic
to diagnose trichmoniasis you must perform these tests. microscopic exam of discharge, trich prep, genital affirm, and can be found in seman or urine in males
many diseases cause birth defects and there is a prescreen for antibodies what is known as the TORCH Panal
The T in torch stands for Tocoplamosis
The O in torch stands for other tests such as syphilis, hep b, epstein Barr, varicella zoster
the R n torch stand for Rubella
The C in torch stands for Cytomagalovirus
The H in torch stands for Herpes Simplex virus


Question Answer
temperature a measurment of how hot or cold something is
sublimation occurs when a substance changes directly from a solid to a gas without going through a liquid state
melting point the temperature at which the solid melts to become a liquid
freezing point the temperature at which a liquid freezes
boiling point the temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas
vaporization the process by which a liquid changes to a gas
pressure the force exerted by the gas
physical change altering the size,shape, or state of a substance without forming a new substance
matter can exist as a _________, ____________, or _______. solid, liquid, gas
The ________ of a gas is affected by temperature and pressure volume
Ice cubes left in your freezer for a long period of time will become _______ and eventually "____________". smaller;disappear
During evaporation what happens? the water molecules absorb energy.
The molecules do what, during evaporation? They move faster and farther apart and escape from the liquid.
After the molecules separate during evaporation what happens next? The water vapor condenses into liquid water and energy is released.
What happens when energy is removed during evaporation? The molecules slow down and move closer together to become a liquid again.
If you put a balloon in cold water what happens? it shrinks


Question Answer
materials in the environment that help people live and grow Natural Resources
resources that nature can replace as they are used Renewable Resources
resources that nature cannot replace as fast as they are used up Nonrenewable Resources
nonrenewable resoures that formed from the remains of dead animals (examples: coal, natural gas, oil) Fossil Fuel
the wise use and protection of resoures Conservation

Science Vocabulary

Question Answer
A living thing Organism
All the living and nonliving things that interact with each other in an environment Ecosystem
The place where an organism lives Habitat
The average weather in a large area over a period of many years Climate
A special role or job an organism has within its ecosystems Niche

Fossil Vocabulary

Question Answer
All of the fossils that have existed throughout life’s history, whether they have been found or not. Fossil Record
are scientists who use fossils to study life in the past. Paleontologists
body parts of organisms that become fossils, such as bones, teeth, skin, leaves, and tree trunks. Body Fossil
evidence left by organisms such as burrows, imprints, coprolites or footprints. Trace Fossil
an organism that feeds upon dead and dying organisms. Scavenger
an organism that breaks down the tissue and/or structures of dead organisms. Decomposer
non-living factors such as erosion, wind and sun exposure. Abiotic/Physical Factors
are imprints left from something that was buried Molds
are formed when sediment leaks into a mold and hardens to form a copy of the original structure Casts
occurs when minerals carried in water build up in the spaces of an organism an eventually become rock. Mineralization
are the imprints left behind in the sediments by an organism. Impressions
are found in the ocean and are very common in the fossil record. Forams
living at the bottom of the ocean or on the ocean floor. Benthic
living factors such as decomposers, scavengers and predators. Biological/Biotic Factors
fossils formed when an organism is flattened, leaving a dark stain in the rock. Compression
fossilized feces. Coprolite
weathering or wearing away of rock and earth caused by the wind, sun, and/or water. Erosion
water found underground as a result of rainfall, ice and snow melt, submerged rivers, lakes and springs. Groundwater
the study of trace fossils. Ichnology
type of rock produced when molten magma cools and solidifies. Igneous rock
not containing carbon. Not from living things. Ex- mineral. Inorganic
the coastal zone between the low and high tide mark where waves impact the land. Intertidal
rock produced when any type of rock is changed by heat, pressure, and chemical activity in the Earth. Metamorphic Rock
the concept that explains the movement of the Earth’s crustal plates, sea floor spreading, and a number of other geologic processes of the Earth’s surface. Plate tectonics
the process through which one type of rock is converted into another. Rock Cycle
rock that is formed when layers of small particles are compressed and cemented together. Sedimentary Rock
evidence left by organisms, such as burrows, imprint, coprolites, or footprints. Trace Fossil
the process that caused part of the Earth’s crust to rise above surrounding areas. This can cause layers of rock to become exposed at the surface. Uplift


Question Answer
example of a producer! reed
salinity is: the amt of salt in a ___ space of water
pre-cations of fishing are that: you can over fish!
how many oceans are there? 5
in what direction does a arrow on a food web go? weak to amazing
an example of a food web arrow is: fish————->bird
coral reefs come from not just any coral, it comes fro the _______ kind! (your trying to find what ____ means) DEAD
what kind of thing-y is a microscopic one? Plankton!
what kind of thing-y swims about? the nekton!
what are the things that live at the bottom of the ocean? Benthos!
example of Plankton: Jelly fish!
example of Nekton: Shark!
example of Benthos: the fish that glows
what ocean grows every year? Atlantic!
what ocean shrinks every year? Pacific!
what was the name of the land part of the Earth at, well somepoint along time ago! Pangea
Tidal energy is pretty cool, what does it need to work though? it needs a shallow channel area
what is an estuary? it is an area where a river and the ocean meets!
what evaprates the ocean on a DAY-ly basis? the sun!
do you like to eat icecream? (that wasn't the question) what is in this food (normally)? seaweed!

Understanding nutrition matching vit minerals wksht

Question Answer
List the trace minerals Iron Zinc Iodine Selenium Copper Flouride Chromium
List the Major Minerals Sodium Chloride Calcium Potassium Phosphorus Magnesium Sulfate
Magnesium- Major or Trace? Major
Iron- Major or Trace? Trace
Potassium- Major or Trace? Major
Zinc- Major or Trace? Trace
Calcium- Major or Trace? Major
Phosphorus- Major or Trace? Major
Iodine- Major or Trace? Trace
Selenium- Major or Trace? Trace
Chloride- Major or Trace? Major
Sodium- Major or Trace? Major
Copper- Major or Trace? Trace
Flouride- Major or Trace? Trace
Sulfate- Major or Trace? Major
Chromium- Major or Trace? Trace
Sodium Function Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance; nerve impulse transmission & muscle contraction
Sodium Daily Needs Adults: 1500mg/day(19-50); 100mg/day (31-70); 1200mg/day(>70)
Sodium Toxicity Symptoms Edema, acute hypertension
Sodium Food Sources Table salt; soy sauce; processed foods
Sodium Excess Amounts UL: 2300 mg/day
Sodium Deficiency Muscle cramps, mental apathy, loss of appetite; *Hyponatremia in athletes
Chloride Function Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance; proper digestion
Chloride Daily Needs Adults: 2300mg/ day (19-50; 2000mg/day (51-70); 1800 mg/ day (>70)
Chloride Toxicity Symptoms Vomiting
Chloride Food Sources Table salt; soy sauce; processed foods
Chloride Excess Amounts UL: 3600mg/ day
Chloride Deficiency Rare
Potassium Function Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance; cell integrity
Potassium Daily Needs Adults: 4700 mg/day
Potassium Toxicity Symptoms Muscle weakness; vomiting; stops heart if given in the vein.
Potassium Food Sources Meats, fresh fruits and veggies; grains; legumes
Potassium Excess Amounts None set
Potassium Deficiency Irregular heartrate, muscle weakness, glucose intolerance
Calcium Function Healthy bones & teeth; nerve functioning; blood pressure; etc.
Calcium Daily Needs AI: 1000mg/day (19-5); 1200 mg/ day (>51)
Calcium Toxicity Symptoms Constipation; kidney dysfunction
Calcium Food Sources Milk and milk products; sardines; certain green veggies
Calcium Excess Amounts UL: 2500mg/day
Calcium Deficiency Stunted growth in children; bone loss in adults
Phosphorus Function Part of every cell; genetic material; maintain acid-base balance
Phosphorus Daily Needs 700mg/ day
Phosphorus Toxicity Symptoms Calcification in the kidneys
Phosphorus Food Sources Liver; sunflower seeds; animal products
Phosphorus Excess Amounts UL: 4000mg/ day (19-70)
Phosphorus Deficiency Muscle weakness; bone pain
Magnesium Function Healthy bones; building protein; functioning of immune system
Magnesium Daily Needs Men: 400mg/ day (19-30), Women:310mg/day (19-30)
Magnesium Toxicity Symptoms Supplements: diarrhea; alkalosis; dehydration
Magnesium Food Sources Nuts, legumes, seafood
Magnesium Excess Amounts UL: 350mg/day (supplements)
Magnesium Deficiency Weakness; confusion
Sulfate Function Stabilizes shape of proteins
Sulfate Daily Needs No RDA because needs are met through protein
Sulfate Toxicity Symptoms Excess of sulfur containing amino acids may suppress growth
Sulfate Food Sources Meat,fish, poultry, eggs, milk, legumes
Sulfate Excess Amounts N/ A
Sulfate Deficiency None known
Iron Function Carries oxygen in the blood; makes oxygen avilable for muscles; energy metabolism
Iron Daily Needs Men: 18mg/ day (19-50)/ Women: 8mg/day (51+)
Iron Toxicity Symptoms GI distress/ Iron overload (fatigue, joint pain, organ damage)
Iron Food Sources Red meats, fish, poultry, dried fruits, etc.
Iron Excess Amounts UL: 45mg/day
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Zinc Function Asociated w/ insulin; making of genetic material; taste perception; transports vit. A; makes sperm; etc.
Zinc Daily Needs Men: 11 mg/ day; Women: 8 mg/day
Zinc Toxicity Symptoms Loss of appetite; impaired immunity, etc.
Zinc Food Sources Red meat, shellfish, whole grains, fortified cereals
Zinc Excess Amounts UL: 40 mg/day
Zinc Deficiency Growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, hair loss, etc.
Iodine Function Thyroid hormones that help regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate
Iodine Daily Needs 150 micrograms/ day
Iodine Toxicity Symptoms Underactive thyroid, goiter, etc.
Iodine Food Sources Iodized salt, seafood, bread, etc.
Iodine Excess Amounts UL: 1100 mg/ day
Iodine Deficiency Simple goiter
Selenium Function Defends against oxidation; regulates thyroid hormone
Selenium Daily Needs 55 micrograms/ day
Selenium Toxicity Symptoms Lost and brittle hair & nails, skin rash, fatigue, etc.
Selenium Food Sources Seafood, meat, whole grains, etc.
Selenium Excess Amounts UL: 400 micograms/ day
Selenium Deficiency Predisposition to heart disease
Copper Function Necessary for the absorption and use of iron, part of several enzymes
Copper Daily Needs 900 micrograms/ day
Copper Toxicity Symptoms Liver damage
Copper Food Sources Seafood, nuts, whole grains, seeds,etc.
Copper Excess Amounts UL: 10 mg/day
Copper Deficiency Anemia, bone abnormalties
Fluoride Function Healthy bones and teeth
Fluoride Daily Needs Men: 4 mg/ day Women: 3 mg/ day
Fluoride Toxicity Symptoms Pitting and discoloration of teeth (fluorosis)
Fluoride Food Sources floridated drinking water, tea, seafood
Fluoride Excess Amounts UL: 10 mg/ day
Fluoride Deficiency Tooth decay
Chromium Function Enhances insulin action; improve glucose tolerance
Chromium Daily Needs Men: 35 micrograms/ day Women: 25 micrograms/ day
Chromium Toxicity Symptoms None
Chromium Food Sources Unrefined foods, liver, whole grains
Chromium Excess Amounts N/A
Chromium Deficiency Diabetes like condition

Understanding nutrition matching vit minerals

Question Answer
If you are deficient in this mineral, you will become anemic. Iron
This mineral makes your bones and teeth healthy. Fluoride
This mineral can be found in iodized salt, seafood and bread. Iodine
This mineral is associated with making genetic material, transporting vitamin A and making sperm. Zinc
If you have too much of this mineral you will have a loss of appetite and impaired immunity. Zinc
If you do not get enough of this mineral it will increase your chances of having heart disease. Selenium
If you receive toxic doses of this mineral you could suffer from liver damage. Copper
This mineral regulates growth, development and metabolic rate by its involvement with thyroid hormones. Iodine
If you become deficient in this mineral you could suffer from muscle cramps, mental apathy and loss of appetite. Sodium
You can get high amounts of this mineral in milk and milk products, sardines and certain green vegetables. Calcium
This important mineral is part of every cell and helps to maintain acid-base balance. Phosphorus
If your body has toxic levels of this mineral, you will become constipated and suffer from kidney disfunction. Calcium
This mineral stabilizes the shape of your proteins. Sulfate
If you are deficient in this mineral, you will develop a simple goiter. Iodine
If you obtain toxic levels of this mineral, you will begin vomiting. Chloride
If you take supplements of this mineral in high doses, you could suffer from diarrhea, alkalosis and dehydration. Magnesium
A child who does not get enough of this mineral may have stunted growth. Calcium
This mineral maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance and maintains cell integrity. Potassium
This mineral is necessary for the absorption and use of iron. Copper
If you obtain toxic levels of this mineral, you could develop kidney stones. Phosphorus
If you are given this mineral through an injection in the vein, it will stop your heart. Potassium
If you are deficient in this vitamin as a child, you could develop rickets. Vitamin D
This vitamin promotes vision, synthesizes proteins and supports reproduction and growth. Vitamin A
You can synthesize this vitamin from the sun and cholesterol. Vitamin D
This vitamin is a very important antioxidant and defends against free radicals. Vitamin E
If you receive high doses of this vitamin, it may interfere with the blood clotting action of Vitamin K and cause hemorrhaging. Vitamin E
If you receive too much of this mineral, you may develop high blood pressure. Sodium
If you don’t have enough of this mineral, you may develop diabetes-like symptoms. Chromium
If you do not get enough of this mineral, you may suffer from tooth decay. Fluoride
If you do not get enough of this mineral, you will become weak and confused. Magnesium
This vitamin can be found in wheat germ and vegetable oils. Vitamin E
This vitamin is critical in the clotting of blood. Vitamin K
This vitamin can be found in dark leafy greens and fruits and vegetables that are yellow or deep orange. Vitamin A
A lack of this mineral may cause an irregular heartbeat, muscle weakness and glucose intolerance. Potassium
This mineral carries oxygen in the blood. Iron
If you do not get enough of this mineral it may cause hair loss and delayed sexual maturation. Zinc
As an adult, if you do not receive enough of this vitamin, you may develop osteomalcia or osteoporosis. Vitamin D
Infants are given a dose of this vitamin after they are born to prevent hemorrhagic disease. Vitamin K
A disorder called hemochromatosis is caused when the body is unable to prevent unneeded amounts of this mineral in the diet from being absorbed. Iron
If you are deficient in this mineral during pregnancy it will cause irreversible mental and physical retardation known as cretinism. Iodine
This vitamin helps to make the calcium-binding protein needed for calcium absorption. Vitamin D
If you receive too much of this mineral, you may lose your hair and nails and develop a skin rash. Selenium
This mineral maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance and promotes proper digestion. Chloride