chronic or non.

Question Answer
What is a treatment for Anemia? Iron vitamens.
Is Osteoporosis chronic or non-chronic? Chronic.
What part(s) of the body does Alzheimers affect? Nervous.
What is a way to prvent Heart disease? Healthy life style choices.
How can you treat Cancer? Chemotherapy.
What is Obeasity? Severly over weight.
What is Diabetes? Lack of insulin.
How do you avoid Asthma? Avoid triggers.
What is Emphysema? Lung disease.
What is Alzheimers? A mind disease.
How do you prevent Alzhiemers? Keep your mind active.
How can a person prevent the Common Cold? Wash hands.
What kind of virus is the Common Cold? Respitory Virus.
What is a treatment for Sinus & Ear infection? Antibiotics.
How can a person get staph? Contact.
What is Meningitis? Infflamation.
How does a person get E. Coli? Undercooked meat.
How does a person get Salmonella? Contact with reptile/rodent.
How does a person get HIV? No sharing needles.
How does a person get STD's? Unprotected sex.
What is AID's? A virus.

habitat and niche

Question Answer
biosphere groups of environmental communities with similar climates and ecological systems
ecosystem ecological system of living things and non living thimgs
biome a complex biotic community charactarized by distinctive plant and animal species and maintained under the climatic conditions of the region
communities all the living things within an ecosystem
population all interbreeding members of one within an ecosystem
habitat the natural environment of an organism, found within an ecosystem
4 components of habitats food, water, shelter and space
niche the role that an organism plays in the ecosystem- what it eats, where it lives, what it does, how it acts, how it protects itself, etc. an organism's fit into its environment
biodiversity variation of living organisms within an ecosystem
symbiosis relationship of 2 living organisms that live together in the same environment
mutualism a symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit
commensilasm a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is unaffected
parasitism a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is harmed
non symbiosis two species involved cannot live together
commensilasm examples sqirrel and oak tree, hermit crab and shell, starlings and cattle
parasitism examples lice and humans, fungus and trees, kudzu and native louisiana plants
mutualism examples cattle egrets and cows, bees and flowers,
levels of organization bioshere, ecosystem, community, population


Question Answer
Name the nine ages: 1. Hunter/Gatherers (12,000-8500 BCE 2. Neolithic era/New Stone Age (8500-4300 BCE
1. Hunter/Gatherers (12,000-8500 BCE – conclusion of the Last Ice Age, grain, settlement, transition to Early farmers. 1 developed farming techniques 2 animal domestication
2. Neolithic era/New Stone Age (8500-4300 BCE Invention of pottery/irrigation canals
3.Chalcolithic Era (4300-3500 BCE chalcho-copper (Greek
4. Bronze Age (3500-1200 BCE urban explosion in Mesopatamia-rise of the city-state throught ANE –rize of the sumerian civilization (so Meso
b.Mid Bronze- Revival of Canan cities-Egyptian influence in the Levant- Egyptian civ at height-spoked wheel-alphabet(Phoenicians -Biblical ancestral period (Genesis 12:50 around 2000 BCE
c. Late-Amarna letters-MBA Egyptian and LBA Egyptian warring –Exodous
5. Iron Age (1200-586 BCE Bronze to iron metallurgy-settlement in Canan/transjordanian plateau- Israelite pillared 4 rm house- I.Israelite congquest and settlement(Joshua/Judges
6. Babylonian/Exilic Period (587-539 BCE Daniel- Synagagues- Ark of the Covenant-Theolgically unessceary- God rests with us
7 Persian/Postexilic Period (539-333 BCE Battle of Opis-Cyrus allows them to return-Diaspora Communities “Dispersion” –Temple Rebuilt-Torah/Pentateuch final form (likely
8Greek/Hellenisitc Period (333-63 BCE Alexander the Great-Hellenizes to Greek culture- Greek translation of the OT
9 Roman Period (63 BCE- 330 CE Herod the great, Bith of Jesus


Question Answer
we are stud dwarf african
totaly aqutic pipid
first vert amphib
pipid frogs lack eyelids move tongue
frog toes webbed
shed eat protein
feed brine shrimp
frogs bodies jumping
double life ampib
livin organism
inacctivve hibernate
backbones vertabretes
affect a ani mals liife enviroment
waters surface burbling
satisfies habitat
slow bown estivate

Science vocab.

Question Answer
Solvent the substance that the soulute dissolves in.
Solute the substance that dissolves in a solvent
saturation when no more solute will dissolve in the solvent
crystal the soild form of an object that can be identefied by its properties such as shape, color and pattern
dilute to make a sulution less concentrated.
evaporate when a liuid changes into a gass and floats into the sky (or the air around you)
concentration the amount of materail dissolved in a certain amount of liquid
solublle the ability to be dissolved in liquid
dissolve when solids break into pieces in water so tiny that they cannot even be seen
solution a special type of mixture formed when a solid substance dissolves in water
mixture when two or more things are combined
super saturation a soulution where no more solute will dissolve in the solvent

Science study cards

Question Answer
What are the types of structures? Natural,Manufactured,Mass,Layered,Frame,Shell,Mix and Match
What is function supporting(its own weight),Containing(substances),Transporting,sheltering,lifting,fastening,seperating,communicating,breaking,holding
What is Aestheics? The study of beauty in nature?
What are some factors to consider? Cost,apperance,enviromental impact,Energy Efficance,Tough tissue
Names of joints? Mobile joints,Rigid joints,Fasteners,Interlocking shapes,Ties,Adhesives,health harzard,melting
What is Mass? Mass The mass of an object is the measure of the amount of matter in it. The mass is the number of particles the substance has
Describe forces and weight? Force is a push or pull on an object. The standard unit of force is called newton(N). Weight is a force and should be properly measured with newtons(gravitional force).
Name some external forces? A dead load is a permanent force acting on a structure.A live load is a changing a non permanent force acting on a structure.Impact force is a collision on a structure.
Name some internal forces? Tension forces stretch a material by pulling it's ends.Compressive force is squeezing.Shear is bending or tearing.Torsion is twist a material by turning.

Tissues and membranes

Question Answer
Tissue A group of cells with similar structure an function
What are the 4 major groups of tissue Epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve
Epithelial are what? Coverings an linings
Epithelial has no what? Capillaries, gets nutrients from connective tissue below
Squamous Flat
Cuboidal Cube shaped
Columnar Tall and narrow
Simple layers is how many? 1
Stratified is how many layers? Many layers
Simple squamous epithelium 1 layer, smooth, thin and flat
Stratified squamous epithelium Many layers of mostly flat cells
Transitional epithelium Stratified epithelium with varied shapes of layers
Where is transitional epithelium? Urinary bladder, the cells flatten as bladder streched
Unicellular 1 cell
Example of unicellular Goblet cells, found in gi and respiratory tracts
Ciliated epithelium Columnar cells with cilia
Exocrine glands have Ducts
Endocrinr glands are Ductless
Endocrine secretes directly into where? Into blood and interstitial fluid
Endocrine secret what? Hormones
Connective tissue have both _____ & _______ Matrix & cells
Matrix Structure network or solution of living intercellular material
In blood what is the matrix? Plasma
Areolar cells are what? Fibroblast– produce protein fibers
Areolar fibers are whet 2 kinds Colagen and elastin
Adipose cells are called Adipocyts
Adipostcyts store what? Fat
What are the different types of adipose? Brown and White
Explain the two different adipose Brown is less abundant in adults and white is more abundent and is used to store energy when food intake is less
Brown adipose? Is more abundant in children because they do not have the shivering mechanism that adults have
Adipose is exocrine or endocrine? it is and endocrine because it produces at least one hormone.
Fibrous connective tissue consists of what? Parallel collagen fibers with fewer fibroblasts scattered among them. This parallel is arranged to give greater strength than flexiablity
Where is fibrous connective tissue found? outer walls of arteries, tendons
Fibrous tissue has good or bad blood supply? It has a poor blood supply which results in slow healing
Elastic Connective Tissue is made of primarily what fibers? Elastin
What is one function of the elastic connective tissue? stretching to help with contraction ex; arteries of the heart; it contracts and pumps blood, then they recoil when the heart relaxes
Which connective tissue is important to maintain normal blood pressure? Elastic connective tissue
what is bones prefix? Osteo
Bone cells are called what? Osteocytes
The matrix of the bone is what? calcium salts, and collagen. It makes it strong and not flexible
Bones have good or bad blood supply? Good which allows quick healing process
The matrix of cartilage is what? Carbohydrate and protein
Cartilage contains more ______ which makes it resistant water
Cartilage has a good or bad blood supply? A poor blood supply which makes the healing process slower.
What are cartilage cells called? chondrocytes
Skeletal muscle is ______ and ______ striated and voluntary
Skeletal muscles have single or many nuclei and are cylindrical or tapered ends? many nuclei and cylindrical
Smooth muscles are ______and_____ involuntary and visceral
Smooth muscle is single or many nucle and cylindrical or tapered ends? single and tapered ends
Cardiac muscles serve what purpose? They re branched have one nucleus and have faint striations. They have interlocking folds and permit the electrical impulses of muscle contraction to pass from cell to cell.
The contraction of myocardium create what and keep what circulation? blood pressure and blood circulation
the heart muscle is called what? Myocardium
Nerve tissue consist of what? neurons
what are the two divisions of the nervous system? CNS and PNS
The cell body consists of what? nucleus, axon, dendrites
what is the place where neurons meet where theyre is a small space? synapses
Impulse transmition depends on what chemical? neurotransmitters
Nerve tissue makes up what? brain spinal cord and peripheral nerves
Serous membranes sheets of simple squamous epithelium that line closed body cavities and cover the organs in these cavities
Pleural membranes are the serous membrane of what cavity? Thoracic
Visceral cavity covers what? lungs
Pleural membranes secrete what? serous fluid which prevents friction between the the cavity and the lungs
pericardium lines fibrous pericardium and the visceral peridcardium
mucous membranes line what? body tracts that are open to the enviroment (GI tract, respiratory urinary and reproductive)

science 4th grade Unit B

Question Answer
What is anything that has mass and takes up space? matter
What is the amount of material that all objects have? mass
The amount of space that a box takes up is volume
a salad is an example of a mixture
a mixture in which a substance spreads evenly throughout another substance is a called solution
the unit you use to measure the lenght of your classroom is a meter
a cubic meter is the unit for measuring the volume of a big box

what is the unit used to measure th evolume of a liquid liter
how do you measure the volume of liquid graduated cylinder
what is the basic unit for measuring mass a gram
what is the amount of mass in a certain volume of matter called density
Does a physical change produce a different kind of matter? no
When water changes from ice to liquid water that is called melting point
The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas is called a boiling point
the temperature in which water changes from a liquid to a solid is called freezing point
grams measure small amounts
milligrams measure very small amounts
kilograms measure larger objects

LECOM Path Ch 28 CNS questions

Question Answer What is the causative organism most likely to cause meningitis in an IV drug user if the lab findings show increased protein and decreased glucose? Increased protein and low glucose would indicate bacterial, fungal or TB meningitis (pg 178), but someone who is an IV drug user most likely is STAPH What is most common histological finding in someone w/ CJD? Spongiform encephalopathy – where the normal cellular protein (PrPc) prion protein is turned to (PrPsc) which resists degradation resulting in spongiform encephalopathy pg 176 Which vitamin deficiency is seen in chronic alcoholics? What is the name of this dementia Thiamine, B1 – Wernicke – confusion, opthalmoplegia, and ataxia (wernicke's encephalopathy.)
Korsakoff if confabulation and personality change and memory problems pg 449 A person w/ diabetes melliitus is most likely prone to which type of dementia? Vascular dementia – stepwise loss of cognitive function Grand mal seizure, doctors find melanoma, diagnosis? Metastases from malignant melanoma PP w/ tonic-clonic seizure from left hemorrhage in temporal lobe. Normal glucose and normal protein. What organism caused this disease?
what is seen histologically? Normal protein and normal glucose indicate a viral infection. HSV can cause hemorrhagic legions in the temporal lobe. Known as most common cause of sporadic encephalitis in the US (called temporal lobe enchelphaltis)
Cowdry A inclusions Most common cause of meningitis in 20 year old male? How would brain appear histologically? Neisseria meningitidis (6-60 yrs of age) — purulent exudate on the cerebral convexities indicitve of a bacterial infection pg 178 A person presenting w/ asterixis (flapping hand) is seen in what condition? What is cause? Liver failure w/ hepatic encephalopathy – hyperammonemia
pg 234 – asterixis is also seen in Wilsons What is most important factor in the development of alzheimers?
What are some histological findings? Inheritance of the e4 allele oat the ApoE4 gene – numerous plaques, amyloid in peripheral cerebral arteries pg 422 Which type of intracranial hemorrhage is most common from tripping or trauma?
what would CT scan show? Subdural hematoma- tearing of the bridging veins beneath the dura (mainly in elderly or children)
Crescent-shaped hemorrhage that crosses suture lines (gyr iar preserved)pg 402 What is most typical cause of aseptic or acute lymphocytic meningitis? West Nile, or an echovirus – usually self-limited pg 178 What presentation would you see w/ a saccular aneurysm in the right middle cerebral artery? How would PP?
what would you see on CT scan? lucid interval, often fracture to temporal bone, CN III palsy
biconvex disk – can cross falx, tentorium (wheras subdural cannot) pg 402 Which disease causes loss of UMN leading to progressive muscular weakness from grouped atrophy of skeletal muscle fibers — what is the defect? ALS or Lou Gerigs disease – defect in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) – commonly presents as fasiculations pg 407 A pt hits head, becomes unconscious then becomes comatose – which type of hematoma? Epidural – talk and die PP w/ decreased vision, papilledema, hyperpigmented skin which type of mass or "oma"? What is positive? Schwannoma – pt has NF1 so they have multiple skin schwannomas or neurofibromas. Basically, which type of brain tumor is found in NF2? Schwannoma bilaterally to effect CNVIII (3rd most common brain tumor) pg 425 S-100 Which pathologic findings will a brain present with in Parkinson's? Loss of pigmented neurons in substantia nigra, Lewy bodies (composed of a-synuclein) pg 397 Severe blunt head truama that results in death from a midbrain hemorrhage arranged in a linear ventral -to-dorsal direction and bilateral incal herniation, which artery mostly likely? Basilar artery branches – lead to hemorrhagic infarcts in midbrain and pons
Called "locked-in" syndrome pg 401 Which neoplasm is likely to present as a mass attached to the dura of the brain w/ occasional psammoma bodies
which type of tumor? How common? what are psammoma bodies? Meingiomas – the other conditions where you would see psammoma boddies are: PSaMMoma – Papillary (thyroid), Serous (ovary), Meningioma, Mesothelioma
2ns most common primary brain tumor – spindle cells whorled pattern w/ laminated caclifications pg 425 A person who presents w/ huntingtons and dementia, what would you find histologically in brain? Abnormal prion proteins – CAG repeats (Caudate loses ACH and Gaba) glutamate toxicity
pg 397 Baby w/ anencephaly will show what lab findings Elevated maternal serum AFP levels and acetylcholinesterase pg 127 If a pt has hyponatrium and it is corrected to quickly what is the negative outcome? Demyelination in the bais pontis – can lead to death or obtundation (refers to less than full mental capacity in a medical patient, typically as a result of a medical condition or trauma) Picture of whole in pt's brain after autopsy. She lost consciousness before death, what could have caused the lesion? A remote cerebral infarction – a large area resulted when macrophages had to come clean away liquifactive necrosis Cerebral atrophy and small brains weights, most likely died from which condition? Progressive dementia or alzheimers Which congenital infection is most likely to produce findings of a hydropic fetus that died of organomegaly and extensive necrosis w/ focal calcifications? CMV – one of the TORCH infections that especially effects the CNS
Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, CMV, HIV, HSV and syphilis are other torches. pg 179 What are the two most common neoplasms in children, which location of brain? How would the better prognosis present? Posterior fossa – the astrocytoma – would stain postiive for GFAP(better prognosis) and
medulloblastoma – pseudoroseette (homer-wright – or small blue cells, cause hydrocehphalus. pg 425 Difficulty initiating movements, dies of pulmonary thromboembolism what are other presentations of a pt w/ a midbrain abnormality? Parkinsons – pill-roll tremors, a-synuclein, What is the most often complication of an infection that would cause a SOL w/ ring-enhancing lesions? A cerebral abscess ring-enhancing lesions in Metastases, abscesses, toxoplasmosis, AIDS lymphoma, see pg 42 6 Episodes of dysarthria, weakness in hands, diziness that last about 1 hour, what could explain this? Trasient ischemic attacks, generally a prodrome to stroke pg 403 Pt presents w/ paresthesias in arm, difficulty walking and then the problems will go away. Then he has problems seeing and writing. What would you find in CSF?
how else does this disease present?
how else do you diagnos? MS you would find malignant cellsand oligoclonal bands of IgG
SIN – scanning speech, Intention tremor, incontinence, internuclear opthalmoplegia, nystagmus
MRI but Dx by Oligoclonal bands (also periventricular plaques seen) What would you find in CNS of a pt w/ huntingtons? Atrophy and gliosis of the caudate nuclei A child presents w/ progressive worsening of movement and mental ability and dies, myelin loss is noted.. What could cause this? Metachromatic leukodystrophy – arylsulfatase deficiency w/ buildup of sulfatides- since it is an AR lysosomal storage disesase think of this if you see demylination in babiespg 423 What could cause an 80 year old to go in and out of consciousness who has blood in subdural space? Tear of bridging vein – subdural hematoma Horrible headache that causes nuchal rigidity , CSF shows numerous RBC's — associated w/ which conditions? Saccular/berry anerysm pg 402
marfans, ehlers danlos, APCKD**** What is a common opportunistic infection that affects the CNS in pt's w/ aids? Toxoplasmosis – produces abscesses that produce bright rings on CT and MRI pg 182 5 y.o. boy complained of headache for the past week. Ataxic Gait. sudden vomitting becomes comatose. Afebrile CT: 4-cm mass in cerebellar vermis and dilation of cerebral ventricles. CSF: small cells with dark blue nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Medulloblastoma. Pg. 425 27 y.o. woman w/ CSF showing increased IgG levels with prominent oligoclonal bands. Additional problems? Optic Neuritis. This patient has M.S. 60 y.o. man with sudden loss of conciousness. Examination: left hemiplegia. Did not regain conciousness and died of pneumonia. Pateint had a previous group A beta-hemolytic streptococci infection. What is the condition? Rheumatic heart disease with left atrial mural thrombosis. Pg. 272 55 y.o. man suddenly loses conciousness. Examination: Bilateral Papilledema. No spontaneous movements. What underlying condition caused this? Systemic Hypertension. Pg. 418 49 y.o. woman several headaches for 2 days. Afebrile and normotensive. Papilledema on the right. x1d patient has right pupillary dilation and impaired ocular movement becomes Obtunded ( What's the condition? Transtentorial medial temporal herniation. Pg. 426 56 y.o. single episode of grand mal seizure. Afebrile and Normotensive. Nrm motor/touch CNs intact. Nrm Mental Function MRI three solid 3cm mass lesions w/o ring edema at the gray-white junction in b/l frontal lobes Cerebral ventricles are normal in size. Metastatic Carcinoma. Pg. 225 CT 2cm mass in the right frontal lobe. Stereotactic biopsy: only gliosis and evidence of recent and remote hemorrhage. The mass is removed, and histologic exam: conglomerate of various-sized tortous vessels surrounded by gliosis. What is this caused from? AV malformation. NFA PP Primary Brain Tumor that on microscopy looks like spindle cells concentrically arranged in a whorled pattern (psmammoma bodies: laminated calcifications). What is it? Meningioma.Pg. 425. A previously healthy 16 y.o. boy has complained of headaches for the past 9 months. Enlargement of 4th Ventricle. What is it? Ependymoma.
Look at vignette and explanation for 60.Pg. 425 Pt. has contralateral homonymous hemianopia. What's the cause? Uncal Herniation that is caused from compression of ipsilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA).
Uncus = medial temporal lobe Pg. 426 Sensorineural Hearing Loss example and explain the location? Schwannoma. Aka in this location is a cerebellopontine angle tumor. Schwannomas in this location arise from cranial nerve VIII (internal acoustic meatus). Also called Acoustic Neuromas.
Pg. 392 Pt. has mass in brain. Stereotactic biopsy of the mass shows areas of necrosis surrounded by nuclear pseudopalisading. The neoplastic cells within the mass are hyperchromatic. Neoplasm? Glioblastoma Multiforme. Similar to 68. Pg. 425 HIV Patient has Pneumocystis Jiroveci. Brain MRI: diffuse cerebral atrophy, and no focal lesions are identified. What would be seen in brain? White matter microglial nodules with multinucleate cells. Patient has AIDS dementia complex late in the course of his HIV infection. NFA Term infant born has tuft of hair on his back. What is it? Spina Bifida Oculta. Pg. 127 5 y.o. boy has meningitis. What would be seen on gram stain? Gram-positive cocci. Patient has acute bacterial meningitis. For his age group, the most common organism is Streptococcus Pneumoniae, which is gram-positve coccus. 55 y.o. who had been healthy all his life now has progressive, symmetric muscular weakness. What is the condition? Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis aka ALS aka Lou Gehrig's Disease. neonate is born prematurely at 28 weeks and becomes severely Hypoxemic 24 hours later, and seizure activity is observed. Poor neurologic development. Head CT: Symmetrically enlarged cerebral ventricles at 8 months of age. What is the cause? Germinal Matrix Hemmorhage. 79 y.o. woman was driving her automobile when she had a sudden, severe headache. She was taken to the ER, where she remained comatose and died 6 hours later. What was the cause? Rupture of Berry Aneurysm. Aneurysm in the circle of Willis and extensive subarachnoid hemmorhage. red, shrunken neurons, decreased number of neurons, or absent neurons subset of pt have hippocampal pyrimidal cells, the cerebellar Purkinje cells, and the superior parasagittal neocortical pyramid cells are affected. Cause of neuronal loss? Global Hypoxia. "Red" shrunken neurons, especially in the areas mentioned, are typically seen in the early stages of global hypoxia, as may occur in a severe hypotensive episode. Ischemic brain disease 83 yo f falls backwards hits head Taken to the ER, and examination reveal a 3-cm reddish, slightly swollen area over the occiput. She is arousable but somnolent (drowsy). No motor or sensory deficits. No Papilledema. Head CT: acute hemmorhage where? Inferior Frontal Lobe. Classic "Contrecoup" type of injury, in which the moving head strikes an object, and the force is transmitted to the opposite side of the head. 56 yo f MVA contusions and abrasions head, torso, and extremeties. No papilledema, normal posture, no spontaneous movements. Unconcious. Head CT: no intracranial hemmorhage or edema and no skull fractures. Remains in persistent vegetative state. Lesion? Diffuse axonal injury. Angular acceleration with torsional forces applied to white matter tracts can cause stretching and tearing of axons, followed by axonal swelling or "retraction balls" within hours. 4 yo f developed clumsiness and difficulty ambulating over 6 months past 5 months developed CHF from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. and hyperglycemia. Autopsy: perinuclear iron deposition within cardiac myocytes. Which genetic abnormalities with TNRE? GAA repeats in the frataxin gene. Has Friedrich's ataxia, autosomal recessive progressive illness onset in first 10y The frataxin gene encodes for a protein involved in iron regulation in cells.
Friedreich is Fratastic (frataxin): he's your favorite frat 63 y.o. man had increasing irritability over 3 years. Then marked memory loss. Autopsy: Frontal cortex shows extensive neoronal loss on microscopy and some remaining neurons show intracytoplasmic, faintly eosinophilic, rounded inclusions that stain IHC fo Pick Disease aka Frontotemporal Dementia. Has clinical features similar to Alzhemier's disease, but initially it causes less memory loss and more behavorial changes. 20 y.o. mentally retarded woman saw physician because of flank pain for 1 week. Patches of leathery (shagreen patches) and hypopigmented (ash-leaf patches) skin were scattered over her body. What is it? Tuberous Sclerosis is one of the phakomoatoses (or "neurocutaneous syndromes"). 40 y.o. man, who rarely has headaches, now experiences headaches for the past 6 months. Dies. Microscopy: mass consists of cells with round nuclei with clear cytoplasm. What's the prognosis? Oligodendroglioma. Usually in frontal lobe. Chicken-wire capillary pattern. PP with a primary brain tumor that has characteristic perivascular pseudorosettes and rod-shaped blepharoplast (basal ciliary bodies) found in nucleus. What is it? Ependymoma. The tumors arise in the ventricles (usually 4th ventricles) are more common in first 2 decades of life. Poor prognosis and can cause hydrocephalus. AIDS patient presents with a demyelinating condition that resulted due to a latend virus. What is it? JC papovavirus. Patient has progressive multifocal leukoencephalopahty (PML), which is caused by JC virus and occurs in immunocompromised individuals, including people with AIDS. PP w/ cell study: large cells with large nuclei and scant cytoplasm that mark CD19, but no GFAP or cytokeratin. What is it? Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma. Most common adult Non-Hogkin Lymphoma 60 y.o. woman with Parkinsons. IHC stain for what type of protein is positive? alpha-synuclein. Pg. 397 70 y.o. pt. has acute cerebral infarction due to atherosclerosis. Risk factor? Hypercholesterolemia. PP with cerebellar tonsillar herniation through foramen magnum with aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephaly. Brain MRI would show what malformation? Arnold-Chiari Type II malformation. Often presents with syringomyelia, thoraco-lumbar myelomenigocele. Pg. 127 Infant born at 36 weeks gestation is suffering from cyclopia. The infant died 1 hour after birth. What did the baby have and what condition is this seen in.? Holoprosencephaly. Trisomy 13 (Patau's) M.C. but can be seen in maternal DM and fetal alcohol syndome as well. Pg. 127 86 y.o. man. Histological Exam of the brain: numerous neocortical neuritic plaques and neurofibirllary tangles. What is seen histologically in plaques and what is seen histologically in tangles? Plaques: Aggregation of AB peptide.
Tangles: tau protein
Alzheimer's disease. PP with brain tumor in cerebral hemisphere. "Pseudopalisading" Pleomorphic cells positive for GFAP. Neoplasm? Glioblastoma Multiforme. Most common primary brain tumor. Pg. 425.

Quiz2 21-40

Question Answer
Living or functioning in the presence of air or molecular oxygen. Aerobic
A polysaccharide found in the fibrous portions of plants. Cellulose
Swelling of a part of or the entire body due to an accumulation of excess water. edema
Chemical changes brought about by enzymes produced by various microorganisms. fermentation
The total heat of combustion of a material as determined by the use of a bomb calorimeter. gross energy
An indigestible compound which, along with cellulose, is a major component of the cell wall of certain plant materials. lignin
A large elongated gland located near the stomach. pancreas
Any one of many complex organic nitrogenous compounds formed from various combinations of different amino acids. protein
That part of the digestive tract lying between the esophagus and the small intestine. stomach
The movement of matter through space. work
A substance produced by one microorganism which has an inhibiting effect on the growth of another. antibiotic
cancer producing. carcinogenic
that part of feed which is not water. dry matter
Soluble in fats and fat solvents but generally not soluble in water. fat soluble
The chemical addition of hydrogen to any unsaturated compound. hydrogenation
The sum of all the physical and chemical processes taking place in a living organism. metabolism
Small nipple-shaped projections located on the interior of the rumen. papillae
Any feed high in crude fiber and low in TDN, on an air dry basis. roughage
One of a group of organic substances which, in relatively small amounts, are essential for life. vitamin
A pathogenic, diarrhea producing organism sometimes present in contaminated feeds. salmonella